19 May 2019

The Real Caravaggio?

For this month's edition of Flickr photos, I had a good choice of interesting photos, one of which was a photo of a painting. I decided to use the painting, because I couldn't remember having seen it before.


Joueurs d'échecs, Le Caravage, 1610 © Flickr user Pierre under Creative Commons.

The description of the photo/painting pointed out (in French) that the chess board is positioned incorrectly, with the corner square white *not* on right. I had a bigger problem with the chess board -- it looks too modern and the slight tilt downward to the right is wrong. I have a plastic folding board in the same colors that looks very much like the board in the painting. This is undoubtedly a coincidence and the similiarity is my imagination playing tricks on me, but it still annoyed me.

Using an image search on 'chess caravaggio' (the artist's name in English), I located a half-dozen copies of the painting, one version of which had a different chess board. The others all had the same funny-looking board seen in the Flickr photo. There were other differences between the two versions, enough to convince me that they were two different paintings.

The Flickr description gives 'Gallerie dell'Accademia di Venezia' as a source. The white patch on the right side might be from a flash and is even more visible in the original (I've cropped out the painting's frame). Which version is hanging in Venice?

17 May 2019

Paul Morphy, Annotator

In a recent post on this blog, Paul Morphy, Editor, I looked at the first two volumes of 'Chess Monthly' and wondered whether Morphy wrote the notes to the games. Here's a summary of the post:-

The bottom entry (1858) lists four Morphy games starting on p.15. [...] The first game, Paulsen - Morphy (p.15), is the famous game where Morphy sacrificed his Queen for a Bishop. It has a page and a half of notes. The other three Morphy games have a half-page of notes. [...; Fiske:] "The Book of the [1st American Chess] Congress will hardly be ready before Spring. ... The notes to the games will be chiefly by Mr. Morphy." [...] Were the notes to the Morphy games taken from the draft of the book? [...] Next stop: The Book of the 1st American Chess Congress.

I already had a copy of the book, downloaded from the Open Library when I was working on the post Fiske's 'Chess in Iceland' (July 2018). That copy turned out to be problematic when I was using it in my Kindle. The pages were dark yellow and slow to load, so I located a better copy in Google Books. The title page was preceded by a colored chess problem, as shown in the following image.

Title: 'The Book of the First American Chess Congress' Author: Daniel Willard Fiske, MA; Published: New York, Rudd & Carlton, 1859. The subtitle says,

Containing the proceedings of that celebrated assemblage, held in New York, in the year 1857, with the papers read in its sessions, the games played in the grand tournament, and the stratagems entered in the problem tournay; together with sketches of the history of chess in the old and new worlds.

The book's dedication says,

To Paul Morphy, the hero of that American tournament whose story is here told, and the conqueror upon the traditionary battle fields of Europe, I dedicate this book with every sentiment of esteem and friendship.

The book's preface mentions,

To my kind and distinguished friend, Mr. PAUL MORPHY, the reader is under obligations for comments to several of the games in the Grand Tournament.

Long story short: Morphy wrote the notes to 'several' of the games in the book. While I was working on this, I also learned more about the games in 'Chess Monthly'. The following is from another of Fiske's chess books, 'Chess Tales & Chess Miscellanies' (1912), as a long note to the chapter titled 'Paul Morphy'. The note was titled 'Morphy as a Chess Editor' and attributed to the Times Democrat, New Orleans, March 10, 1901, p. 15:-

From some unknown cause, but undoubtedly as a fact, there seems to have obtained a fairly general belief among the chess fraternity, and especially the editorial section thereof, that Paul Morphy merely lent the use of his name, without substantial editorial work, to the two chess periodicals with which he was connected during his career; namely, the American Chess Monthly during 1858, 1859, and 1860, and the column in the New York Ledger appearing in 1859-1860. In part refutation, at least, of this current idea, we think the following excerpt from a letter written under date of February 5, 1901, from Prof. Daniel Willard Fiske, then at Florence, Italy, to Mr. Will H. Lyons, the well-known chess bibliopole of Newport, Ky., will prove interesting to our readers. It will be recollected that Professor Fiske was Morphy's associate in the editorship of the Chess Monthly. He observes:

"I was very much interested in Mr. Buck's account of Paul Morphy. He errs, however, when he states that Mr. Morphy contributed very little to the Chess Monthly while his name was upon the title-page. During the course of the second, third, and fourth volumes, a large part, possibly the greater part, of the games were selected and annotated by him. His annotations, for their clearness, their firmness, their gentlemanliness, and their terse, accurate English, have not, I think, ever been equalled. They well deserve republication. Unfortunately the indexes do not enable anyone to ascertain with which games Mr. Morphy had to do. My own copy has his initials attached to the games he annotated.

If possible, I will endeavor to have sent you from Paris three large photographs (front view, three-quarters view, side view) of the bust of Mr. Morphy in the Café de la Régence. They are not very satisfactory, partly because the light under which they were taken was so placed as to give a gray appearance to the hair. On the whole, the bust of Morphy constitutes the best likeness obtainable -- all those appearing in books are caricatures."

We confess that we ourselves were not aware that so large a proportion of the games and annotations that enrich the specially splendid 1858, 1859, and 1860 volumes of the Chess Monthly were due to Paul Morphy, but there can be no questioning the accuracy and reliability of Professor Fiske's statements in the matter. It would surely be a boon to possessors of that already valuable periodical, and a marked increase in its chess value to all lovers of the game, if he would furnish for publication, from his set of the Chess Monthly, the data indicating the games selected and annotated by the King of Chess-Kings. We should be only too pleased to give the matter place in our column.

It may be remarked in this connection that, as far as concerns the chess department in the New York Ledger of 1859-1860, aside from the fact that the entire series of at least the earlier half of the games and annotations bear unmistakable marks of Morphy's handiwork, we have personal knowledge that he expended much labor on that particular portion of the column. But the clouds of a mighty oncoming conflict on the bloody fields of the Civil War were already sweeping over the sons of the North and South alike, and small wonder that Morphy was compelled to commit the latter part of the volume to the capable hands of his friend, Fuller, of New York. This is a his- torical fact too well known to need repetition or discussion.

[Paul Morphy died at New Orleans, July 10, 1884.]

In that passage there is much for further research. For this post, I'll stop here.

16 May 2019

Chess Obsessed

After Moscow Panoramas, what else can I do that avoids 'requiring any significant amount of work'? How about something along the lines of 'The Game of Life' or 'The Chess-Players' (January 2019), which was based on that month's 'Top eBay Chess Items by Price'? For the current month that would be a post following on Hyde's Mandragorias (May 2019).

I found a half-dozen recent eBay photos from roughly the same period as the item in the 'Hyde' post, couldn't decide which I liked best, and chose the one that I knew most about. Another photo from the same film is on my page Chess in the Movies (p.2), where the description says, 'Brainwashed (Schachnovelle, 1961); Allied Artists Pictures; Curt Jurgens'.


Curd Jurgens - Brainwashed

Is the actor's name Curt or Curd? The film also figured in a post on this blog, Chess Behanced (February 2014), where I made the connection between Stefan Zweig's novella 'The Royal Game' (aka Schachnovelle) and 'Brainwashed'. That post pointed to a couple of Wikipedia references and used the name Curd Jürgens. The Wikipedia page, Curd Jürgens, starts,

Curd Gustav Andreas Gottlieb Franz Jürgens (13 December 1915 – 18 June 1982) was a German-Austrian stage and film actor. He was usually billed in English-speaking films as Curt Jurgens.

It looks like it's 'Curd' in German and 'Curt' in English. As I do with most differences in spelling, I'll continue to use whatever my source uses along with a mention (usually 'aka') of the alternative.

Back to that 'Chess in the Movies' page, I created it sometime around 2005. It might be worthwhile to survey images I've collected since then and, if I have enough examples, add another sub-page on the same topic. One last word about the original eBay photo: it sold for $19.59 'Buy It Now'.

14 May 2019

Moscow Panoramas

Just like a few months ago in Postcards from 1935 Moscow (January 2019)...

I'm swamped with other projects and have no time for a post requiring any significant amount of work.

...so let's have some more photos 'Spotted on eBay'.


Top: 12th Soviet Chess Championship, Moscow, IX-X, 1940. For another photo on this blog from the same source, see The 12th Soviet Championship (September 2017)
Bottom: Final candidates match, Moscow, IX-XI, 1974, 1973-75 Candidates Matches (m-w.com)

The top photo 'consists of four photos glued together'. The bottom photo is a single panoramic view.

13 May 2019

Leela Wins TCEC Cup 3; CCC8 S1 99% Finished

When we left last week's post about two ongoing, world class engine-vs-engine competitions, TCEC Cup 3 Nears QF; CCC8 S1 90% Finished, the situation looked something like this:-

TCEC: Currently in the octofinal stage (the round of 16) five of the original 32 engines have already qualified for the quarterfinal, with three octofinal matches remaining to determine the other three quarterfinalists • CCC: Of the original 24 engines, 21 have entered [CCC8] and have run the gauntlet of the engines that started before them. Fizbo is the 22nd engine to start, leaving only Stockfish and Leela still to start.

What's the status a week later?

TCEC: In TCEC Cup 3, Leela beat Stockfish in the final match with a score of +2-1=7, to confirm its victory in TCEC Cup 2. The following chart shows the last four matches that determined 1st through 4th places in the final standings.

The S15 superfinal started afterwards and the score is currently tied at +1-1=11. For a reminder on how the two engines qualified, see the post from two weeks ago, TCEC S15 Final: SF vs. Leela; CCC8 S1 at 3/4 Mark.

CCC: Looks like last week's title, 'CCC8 S1 90% Finished', was overly optimistic. The first, qualifying stage is still running. Leela was the last engine to start the event and still has four mini-matches left on the schedule. I'll add an update to this post when the final result is known.

With both TCEC S15 and CCC8 in their final stages, it's useful to have an overview of finishes to previous competitions:-

Newcomers to chess engine tournaments might benefit from a basic information page published recently by the organizer of the CCC competitions: Computer Chess Engines: A Quick Guide (chess.com).

[For further information from the various stakeholders in the engine-to-engine events, see the tab 'TCEC/CCC Links' at the top of this page. • Leela = LC0 = LCzero]

***

Later: A few hours after I prepared the main post above, the CCC8 qualifying stage finished in the order -- Stockfish, Leela, Leelenstein, Antifish, Houdini, Komodo -- no tiebreaks required. Since the rules specified, 'Top 4 engines advance to final, only two can be from a single, or shared, code-base', Leelenstein beat Antifish for the second qualifying spot in the Leela family. Also noteworthy is Houdini's narrow half-point placing above Komodo. I'll have more details in next week's post.

12 May 2019

The Hand That Feeds You

The last time we saw the Grand Chess Tour (GCT) on this blog was Chess Lions in Leuven (June 2018), about the GCT leg in Belgium. The tour is back in 2019, and it's been much expanded. What do the players think?


Grand Chess Tour: 2019 Côte d’Ivoire Rapid & Blitz - GCT expands in 2019 (2:44) • 'Published on May 12, 2019'

What do you think they think? More events, more money -- what's not to like? The description to the video said,

Grandmaster Maurice Ashley feels the Grand Chess Tour Players out on how they feel towards the expansion of the Grand Chess Tour circuit into new Countries beginning with the Côte d’Ivoire Rapid & Blitz in Africa.

Starting with GM Nakamura ('more events, more players, more variety, more prize money'), followed by GMs Wesley So, Vachier-Lagrave, Topalov, Karjakin, and Carlsen ('The more the merrier!'), the players have nothing but good to say. For more about the series of events this year, see 2019 Grand Chess Tour (grandchesstour.org). Unfortunately for those of us who live in Belgium, the Belgian leg has disappeared. I should have visited last year when I had the chance!

10 May 2019

Paul Morphy, Editor

In the previous post in this series, Five Volumes of 'Chess Monthly', I wrote,

Both title pages [1857, v01; 1858, v02] mention Paul Morphy and D.W. Fiske as editors (plus 'Problem Department by E.B. Cook'), although the handwritten page [1857, v01] indicates that Morphy's name was added later. [...] It's not clear what role he actually played in the publication of Chess Monthly. I'll tackle that another time.

I found a review of v02 at Chess Book Chats: The Chess Monthly by Morphy and Fiske (May 2018; part 1/2). It said,

This is the second volume, for the year 1858, with Paul Morphy named as co-editor, although he had spent the second half of the year in Europe; and the whole volume is largely a tribute to Morphy with extensive reports of his exploits both at home and abroad. Of the 97 games included in this volume, the great majority are by Morphy, starting with games from the First American Chess Congress, held in New York in October and November 1857, and ending with many of his astonishing performances in England and France.

That makes sense, although 'great majority [of games] are by Morphy', might be an exaggeration. Quibbles aside, here is an extract of the Morphy entries from the general indices of the first two volumes of 'Chess Monthly'.


Top: 1857, v01 • Bottom: 1858, v02

The top entry (1857) lists four Morphy games starting on p.368. All of the games were given without notes. The bottom entry (1858) lists four Morphy games starting on p.15. Here is a list of the games, including two games sandwiched between the Morphy games (all links to Chessgames.com):-

The first game, Paulsen - Morphy (p.15), is the famous game where Morphy sacrificed his Queen for a Bishop. It has a page and a half of notes. The other three Morphy games have a half-page of notes. The first page of the edition where the games appeared (January 1958) said,

The Book of the [1st American Chess] Congress will hardly be ready before Spring. This delay is occasioned in part by the desire of the Editor to make the Historical Sketch of American Chess as complete as possible. The notes to the games will be chiefly by Mr. Morphy.

Were the notes to the Morphy games taken from the draft of the book? I'll look at that another time. If four of the six games in the game section were by Morphy, what about the other two? The second game, Montgomery - Paulsen (p.18), would also be found in the book of the congress. The third game appears to be missing from the databases; at least I couldn't find it during a few minutes of searching. Curious about the game, I entered the moves myself:-

[Event "Consultation Game"]
[Site "Paris"]
[Date "1857.06.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Viscount Casabianca / Count Isouard"]
[Black "Duke of Brunswick / Harrwitz"]
[Result "0-1"]
[Source "Chess_Monthly (v02; 1858; p.19)"]

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 e6 4.Nc3 a6 5.a4 g6 6.d4 cxd4 7.Nxd4 Bg7 8.Nde2 Nge7 9.O-O f5 10.exf5 Nxf5 11.Bd3 O-O 12.Bxf5 Rxf5 13.Ng3 Rf7 14.Nce4 d5 15.Nc5 Qe7 16.Nd3 e5 17.Re1 Be6 18.f3 Raf8 19.c3 h5 20.Be3 d4 21.cxd4 exd4 22.Bf2 h4 23.Ne2 h3 24.Bg3 Bh6 25.f4 hxg2 26.Nf2 Bg7 27.Ne4 Bd5 28.Ng5 Rf5 29.Rc1 Qd8 30.Rc5 d3 31.Qxd3 Qxg5 32.Rd1 Nb4 33.Qd2 Qg4 34.Re1 Re8 35.Qxb4 Rxe2 36.Rxd5 Rxd5 37.Qc4 Bd4+ 38.Bf2 Bxf2# 0-1

Its main point of interest appears to be the Queen sacrifice on move 31. Next stop: The Book of the 1st American Chess Congress.

09 May 2019

Archie

No, we're not talking about Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor (congratulations to the proud parents!), we're talking about Archie comics. Although I had more than a half-dozen comic covers to choose from, the one shown below seemed the most appropriate, given the news from Britain's royal family.


Archie's Pals 'n' Gals (No.162)

The dialog balloons say,

Veronica: 'Stand aside, Betty! King Archie is mine'

Betty: 'He is not! This QUEEN plays to WIN!'

Archie: 'If I'm a KING, how come they treat me like a PAWN?'

In real life, Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor has about as much chance of being King as he has of becoming World Chess Champion, but he's still born into a charmed life. The story reminds me of the recent post, April Yahoos -- Much Ado About Nothing? (April 2019), where I asked, 'Is there a better way to illustrate the idea of a King than with a chess King?' • The Game of Kings? A King or a Pawn?

07 May 2019

2019 CJA Awards Announcement

It's become an annual exercise on this blog -- following the Chess Journalists of America (CJA) awards. Last year, just like previous years, it took three posts to cover the main activity:-

I even got a fourth post out of the exercise to look at some of the new categories introduced in 2018:-

The 2019 awards were announced in the May issue of Chess Life (CL). Just like in last year's post, here are the award categories for 2018 and 2019 presented side-by-side. (That's the cover of the August 2017 CL in the upper right corner.) For 2019, the CJA has added nine new categories, highlighted in yellow.

2018 2019

How to enter? There's an entry form on the CJA's web site, Chess Journalism (chessjournalism.org). The structure of the online entry categories doesn't correspond exactly to what was printed in the May CL, but I'll assume that everything is covered. The announcement specified,

The prestigious awards, which are open to anyone, showcase American works published in English between June 1, 2018 to May 31, 2019.

If you're a CJA member (I'm not), good luck!

06 May 2019

TCEC Cup 3 Nears QF; CCC8 S1 90% Finished

The title of last week's post on the two engine-vs-engines tournaments that I'm following was TCEC S15 Final: SF vs. Leela; CCC8 S1 at 3/4 Mark. Deciphering that title requires a summary of the post:-

TCEC: In the last event for S15, Stockfish and Leela will play a season-ending final match (aka superfinal, sufi) for the second time to determine the best engine on the planet. [...] Before the final match, the TCEC will be holding another cup event, as announced in TCEC Cup 3... • CCC: As of this writing, 18 engines have started play in CCC8; the most recent was Leelenstein. Nearly 590 games have been played. That means 75% of the engines have started play, but somewhat more than half of the games have been played.

During the intervening week, TCEC Cup 3 and CCC8 have both advanced; neither has finished, but both should be finished before next Monday's post. Let's have a quick look at their current status.

TCEC: Currently in the octofinal stage (the round of 16) five of the original 32 engines have already qualified for the quarterfinal, with three octofinal matches remaining to determine the other three quarterfinalists. So far there have been no surprises in the mini-matches.

CCC: Of the original 24 engines, 21 have entered the event and have run the gauntlet of the engines that started before them. Fizbo is the 22nd engine to start, leaving only Stockfish and Leela still to start. The following chart shows the current standings for the first 12 of the 21 engines that have already played each other.

A week ago I wrote, 'Houdini and Antifish are at no.1 and no.2, unfortunately a meaningless observation.' Leelenstein, which was just starting the event at that time, is currently at no.1, followed by Antifish and Houdini. Assuming that both Stockfish and Leela finish among the first four, that leaves place for two more engines. Only two engines from the same AI/NN family can qualify for the final stage, and -- as far as I know -- all of the top AI/NN engines are from the Leela family. That means Leelenstein and Antifish will be fighting each other for one of the last two places in the final.

[For further information from the various stakeholders in the engine-to-engine events, see the tab 'TCEC/CCC Links' at the top of this page.]

05 May 2019

Hyde's Mandragorias

When was the last time I featured a book on Top eBay Chess Items by Price (March 2010)? Not counting comic books, it appears to have been Lombardy's MCO (October 2017), over a year and a half ago.

The item pictured below was titled, '1694 HYDE Oriental Games HISTORY OF CHESS +Nard Backgammon HEBREW ARABIC CHINESE', subtitled, 'RARE 1ST EDITION OF "FIRST SCHOLARLY HISTORY OF CHESS"'. It sold for US $1450 after 48 bids from 16 bidders, on a starting price of $9.75.

The description started with a text image that I transcribed as

Thomas Hyde

[DE LUDIS ORIENTALIBUS LIBRI DUO]
Mandragorias, seu, Historia shahiludii [...] :
de ludis Orientalium

[WITH]

SHAHILUDIUM TRADITUM
in Tribus Scriptis Hebraicis.

[AND]

HISTORIA NERDILUDII,
Hoc est dicere, trunculorum : cum
quibusdam aliis Arabum,
Persarum, Indorum,
Chinensium
[...]

That Latin text appears to have been taken from portions of the book's title page and a 17th-century version of a preface. The rest of the description might be the longest I have ever seen on eBay that wasn't a copy/paste from Wikipedia. It started,

First Complete Edition of this pioneering and highly esteemed study on the history of chess, as well as nard and other oriental games. Three parts in one (2 volumes, with 1st volume comprising 2 parts). Text in Latin, Hebrew, Greek, Arabic, Persian, English and other languages. Illustrated with several engravings in text and 3 folding engraved plates.

This was followed by a collection of quotes from other sources, of which the most authoritative was from Murray:-

"The closing years of the [17th] century saw the publication by the Oxford University Press of Hyde's Mandragorias, seu Historia shahiludii (1694), the first really scientific contribution to the history of chess. A second volume, with the title Historia Nerdiludii, treated in a similar way of other Oriental games. The author, Thomas Hyde, was one of the first Oriental scholars of his age, and was successively Professor of Hebrew and if Arabic in the [Oxford] University, in addition to filling the position of Bodley's Librarian from 1665 until 1701. He used his vast knowledge of Arabic literature to establish the Indian origin of chess, and, although no chess-player himself, the careful use which he made of his authorities, and the copious extracts which he gives, make his work of great value even at the present time." (Harold Murray, A History of Chess, p.841)

After much more of the same, including a few paragraphs on Thomas Hyde (1636-1702), was a physical description of the book.

Octavo, text block measures 16 cm x 9½ cm. Bound in contemporary (ca. 1700) full vellum dyed brownish-orange over rigid boards; flat spine richly decorated in gilt, and with a gilt-lettered title label. • 3 parts bound in 1 volume. Pagination: [72], 184, [4], 71, [17], 278, [2 blank] pages + 3 folding plates. Collated and COMPLETE (with half-title and final blank present). • Illustrated with 3 folding engraved plates (in the 1st part), and several engravings and woodcuts in text. Printed in roman and italic letter (for Latin), black letter/gothic (for English and German), Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, and other exotic types, some of which (Chinese, Sanskrit, etc) are engraved. • Each of the three parts with its own dated title-page and its own pagination. Includes half-title ("De ludis Orientalibus...") with the imprimatur (dated Sept. 20 1693) on verso. Dedications, dedicatory epistles, and prefaces to the reader to the 1st and 2nd volume, respectively.

It's unusual to see so much effort put into an eBay description. The seller certainly earned his $1450.

03 May 2019

Five Volumes of 'Chess Monthly'

In last week's post, Early American Chess Periodicals, I used machine translation to understand an article from the August 1861 edition of Schachzeitung. Here's an excerpt:-

Recently, the American [Chess Monthly] has an equally thorough, as detailed compilation of all the leaves of their land brought the chess more or less have reciprocated extensively and permanently. We see that in all, 87 newspapers play our games, if only temporarily, were interested. Present are of course, it was only about eleven, which continued [to bring] a column over the chess; they are the following: [...]

Hoping to find the original article in English, I went back to Google Books to locate copies of Chess Monthly and found five volumes (1857-61, v01-05). The title pages for volumes 01 & 02 are shown below.


Left: 1857, v01; Right: 1858, v02
Bottom: Bookplate

The bookplate, which was also in the Google scans, says, 'Ex Libris : Dr. M.Niemeijer'. I mentioned Niemeijer in Chess Sources for Google Books (April 2019), because his book collection is one of the sources for the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (KB) in The Hague. As the image above shows, the title page for the 1857 annual volume (v01) of Chess Monthly was handwritten, as was the general index for the entire year. I assume that it is Niemeijer's handwriting.

Both title pages mention Paul Morphy and D.W. Fiske as editors (plus 'Problem Department by E.B. Cook'), although the handwritten page indicates that Morphy's name was added later. In a recent post on my World Championship blog, Early Chess Periodicals (April 2019), I noted a strong connection between those periodicals and the early history of the World Championship:-

The year in brackets ('[]') is the year of the periodical's first publication. That is followed by the name(s) of someone who played a role both in the early years of the periodical and in the early events now considered to have been forerunners ('Unofficial events') of the World Championship. [...] Labourdonnais, Staunton, and Anderssen are all accounted for. St.Amant played two matches against Staunton.

Now we can add Morphy's name to the list, although it's not clear what role he actually played in the publication of Chess Monthly. I'll tackle that another time.

The last volume of Chess Monthly (1861, v05) also has a title page and general index written in Niemeijer's hand. The title page includes the note, 'Five numbers only were published from January to May when the issue ceased.' The first article in the May 1861 edition is the English language source of the Schachzeitung translation. Now we can see how close the translation is to the original (spoiler alert: it's not very good).

02 May 2019

May 1969 'On the Cover'

If this month's 'On the Cover' looks vaguely familiar, it might be because we've already seen the Chess Life side on this blog in Early U.S. High School Championships (May 2017). I'll come back to that post after I present both covers from 50 years ago.


Left: 'John Watson - Winner of the 1st National High School Championship'
Right: 'Chess Sets'

Chess Life

The CL cover promised 'Details next month', so let's skip ahead to the June 1969 Chess Life.

With 370 players from 21 states, D.C., and Puerto Rico, the National High School Championship made a spectacularly successful debut at the McAlpin Hotel in New York April 11-13. Entrants came from as far as Hawaii and all eight USCF regions were represented. The Individual Champion, with a 7 1/2 - 1/2 score, was John Watson, a senior at Brownell-Talbot High School, Omaha, Nebraska; while the team title, determined by combining the scores of each school's four best scorers, went to the "Gompers" team of Chicago, Ill., all of whose members attend Lane Technical High School.

Getting back to that 2017 post on 'Early U.S. High School Championships', I wrote of the five first winners, 'Along with [Larry] Christiansen, John Watson is well known in the current chess scene, primarily as an author.' Indeed, we've seen him several times on this blog in discussions of books. The most extensive writeup was probably Notes on Material Imbalances (January 2013), where I mentioned, '"Secrets Of Modern Chess Strategy" by John Watson (Gambit 1998), a winner of several "Book of the Year" awards'.

Chess Review

Bob Rosenwald says of our cover sets this month: "Enclosed are photos of two different chess sets I recently designed. The top is made of brass; the lower, wood turned on a lathe -- my first serious attempt in some years to design a beautiful and playable set. I feel the bottom one lends itself admirably to a production line -- perhaps in a high quality plastic." This is Bob's fourth cover appearance!

Four Rosenwald cover appearances? I found the third in April 1966 'On the Cover', where the CR blurb said, 'Robert Rosenwald, who seems to specialize in "out" art on the chessboard'. The second was April 1964 'On the Cover', where the CR blurb said, 'The new Rosenwald set (compare with one on March cover last year) [...] Set designed and executed by Robert L. Rosenwald.' Since that 'On the Cover' was only the second in a new series, Rosenwald's work from the March CR 1963 isn't available for a comparison.

CR had a habit of featuring chess pieces on its covers. The previous occurrence was July 1968 'On the Cover where the CR blurb explained that is was from a 'display of chess sets held at the Brooklyn Museum'.

30 April 2019

April Yahoos -- Much Ado About Nothing?

After last month's March Yahoos -- A Viral Story, I'm once again reduced to pecking at crumbs just like in previous months. The only chess reference I spotted while browsing mainstream news headlines is shown in the following screen capture.

2019-04-14

What does '5 Top Dividend Kings to Buy and Hold Forever' have to do with chess? The photo's mouseover explained, 'A king chess piece on a piece of paper displaying a chart line and data points.' On the other hand, why not a chess King? Chess can sell stock market advice as well as it can sell anything. Is there a better way to illustrate the idea of a King than with a chess King? Last month I also had a Stock Post about stock photos. Stock post, stock photo, stock market -- stock advice?

I should end the post here, but there was one mainstream chess story in April that deserves a mention:-

Add this to the Yahoo subcategory 'Weird Chess News', last seen in February Amazon Yahoos. Then again, for many people any story about chess is weird.

29 April 2019

TCEC S15 Final: SF vs. Leela; CCC8 S1 at 3/4 Mark

Another Monday post on this blog means another update on two important, ongoing engine-to-engine competitions. I'll summarize last Monday's report, TCEC S15 DivP Nears Finish; CCC8 [S1] Half-Way, with a short paragraph:-

TCEC: The season 15 premier division is in the final round of play with Stockfish holding first place, Leela second, and the other engines trailing by a considerable margin. • CCC: CCC8 uses an escalation format [...] As of this writing, a little more than half of the engines have started play, and the final result is anyone's guess. The official schedule projects 1104 games total.

I'll come back to that last sentence when I give the current status of the CCC.

TCEC: The premier division finished with the same relative positions given last week, as shown in a small version of the final crosstable below. Stockfish finished two points ahead of Leela (aka LC0, LCzero), although Leela won their individual match by the score +1-0=5.

In the last event for S15, Stockfish and Leela will play a season-ending final match (aka superfinal, sufi) for the second time to determine the best engine on the planet. See Stockfish Wins TCEC S14; CCC6 S2 Underway (February 2019) for this blog's report on the first final match, which was as close as a decisive match can be.


TCEC S15 Premier Division

Among the also-rans, the result of AI/NN engine AllieStein was the most remarkable. Starting the season in division 4, the lowest of the five divisions, it consistently finished in the top-2 for each successive division, eventually qualifying into the premier division. There it tied for 4th/5th with Houdini. It has been less than a year-and-a half since Houdini won TCEC S10, around the same time that DeepMind's AlphaZero burst into the chess world's collective consciousness. I reported on both of those events in Houdini, Komodo, Stockfish, and AlphaZero (December 2017). AlphaZero was the first AI/NN engine to compete at the level of the traditional engines; Leela was the second; and AllieStein is the third.

Before the final match, the TCEC will be holding another cup event, as announced in TCEC Cup 3 - pairings and information (chessdom.com):-

The cup holder Lc0 is going to defend its title in a race with the top 32 engines of the ongoing season. [...] The main challenger of of Lc0 will be Stockfish. It starts at the other end of the brackets and the two can meet only at the final

Before cup play starts, the TCEC is holding a couple of filler (aka bonus) events. I couldn't find much about these events and what I could find wasn't helpful, so I'll say no more.

CCC: Getting back to the summary of last week, I called it the 'Half-Way' point for the preliminary stage of CCC8. In fact, the CCC escalation format makes it difficult to pinpoint the progress of an event. The first two engines meet in a mini-match. Then a third engine enters the competition and plays the first two, then a fourth engine plays the first three, and so on. This procedure introduces all sorts of complications for the spectators. Given that 24 engines are competing, we can calculate that 276 mini-matches are played during the event. Since each match consists of four games, we get the total of 1104 games foreseen for the entire event.

As of this writing, 18 engines have started play in CCC8; the most recent was Leelenstein. Nearly 590 games have been played. That means 75% of the engines have started play, but somewhat more than half of the games have been played. Houdini and Antifish are at no.1 and no.2, unfortunately a meaningless observation. Next week's Monday post also won't provide much insight into the eventual final standing, which will qualify the top four engines into a multi-stage round robin.

[For further information from the various stakeholders in the engine-to-engine events, see the tab 'TCEC/CCC Links' at the top of this page.]

28 April 2019

Every Story Has a Beginning

What could be more natural for a series on The Sociology of Chess (November 2016) than a followup to last month's March Yahoos -- A Viral Story:-

A great story, which was picked up by most major news services, appeared twice in the same Yahoo news feed. The first appearance was a featured story at the top of the feed, captioned, 'Homeless refugee chess champion goes viral'.

This video is from Youtube's 'NBC News - Today' channel.


8-Year-Old Chess Champ And Homeless Refugee Gets Fairytale Ending | TODAY (7:11) • 'Published on Mar 19, 2019'

The description said,

At just 8-years-old, Tani [Tanitoluwa] Adewumi is a chess prodigy – and that’s just part of his remarkable story. The third-grader, who has been living in a homeless shelter with his family, plans to move to an apartment thanks to an incredible crowdfunding effort.

Also appearing in the video are 'Coach Russell' (Russell Makofsky) and 'Coach Shawn' (Shawn Martinez). Tani and his coaches are all wearing blue 'PS 116 NYC' T-shirts. For another inspirational video, see 2019 U.S. Chess Championships: Tanitoluwa "Tani" Adewumi Interview, from the Youtube channel for the Saint Louis Chess Club:-

Grandmaster Maurice Ashley interviews Tani Adewumi, the New York 3rd Grade champion, during Round 10 of the U.S. Championships. Tani has an inspirational story, from a Nigerian refugee to a 1500 rating at eight years old.

The Tani story is reminiscent of the Phiona Mutesi story, last seen on this blog in Queen of Katwe Meets Queen of IMF (April 2017). I'm confident that we haven't seen the last of either story.

26 April 2019

Early American Chess Periodicals

Take a 19th-century foreign language chess periodical, extract the text using an OCR service, convert the text to English -- what have you got? I've already tried a small experiment with a poem in 'On Anderssen' (February 2019); how about trying something more important.

Shown below is the start of an article from the August 1861 (vol.16) edition of Schachzeitung, edited by M. Lange, B. Suhle, and P. Hirschfeld. See the recent post Other 'Schachzeitungen' for more about the family of publications.

OCR plus translation yielded the following (with a few corrections marked with '[ ]'):-

The chess author, who wants to write in the future a literature of his game, must be much more cumbersome periodicals let in as his predecessors did. As successor Anton Schmid's, he will be the latter, in the more than 400-page works on the literature of chess, quoted five journals, which regularly devote a part of their columns to noble games, have to multiply by a significant number.

Still, it is not too long ago that the chess charts with their crowns, horseheads and themes, with their explanatory letters and [numbers]. that seemed so strange to an earlier generation, into the columns of journals began to appear. We believe that the first sachcolumne was built in 1823 in the London Lancet and although this new, unprecedented column at that time excited by no means so much attention, as one might have previously suspected should.

The second chesscolumn appeared in 1828 in the Berlin Stafette, and this was followed in 1834 by the well-known column of Bell's Life in London, which still exists under the direction of her founder, the eccentric George Walker.

Further hints about the presently existing chess columns can be found scattered here and there in the chess newspaper, partly in a fitting, if not completely exhaustive, collection some parts of chess sketch Paul Morphy [NB: 'Paul Morphy: A Sketch from the Chess World']. From the latter see we too, that the transatlantic time sheets of our noble games much more voluminous and extensive than the widely illustrated journals of the old world.

Recently, the American [Chess Monthly] has an equally thorough, as detailed compilation of all the leaves of their land brought the chess more or less have reciprocated extensively and permanently.

We see that in all, 87 newspapers play our games, if only temporarily, were interested. Present are of course, it was only about eleven, which continued [to bring] a column over the chess; they are the following: [...]

Given the many possibilities for introducing errors...

  • in the original publication
  • by the scanning process
  • by OCR
  • by the translation
  • by the person putting everything together (that's me)

...it's surprising that the final result makes any sense at all. But it does make sense and even gives me a few leads for further posts.

25 April 2019

Fischer's Viking Chess?

Just like the other photos in my recent post, Fischer Center, Selfoss, Iceland, this photo had no information attached to it other than its location : Bobby Fischer Center.


Bobby Fischer Center in Selfoss © Flickr user John Seb Barber under Creative Commons.

What kind of a chess set is that? The bottom right of the board is stamped 'VIKINGA SKAK'. I found a description of the game at Viking-Chess (viking-chess.blogspot.com; August 2012). The blog post starts,

Viking chess is played on an unusual chessboard consisting of hexagons instead of squares, arranged in three different colours.

The pieces are the same as in traditional chess except the big one in the middle of the back rank(s), called the 'Viking'. The files are labelled 'A' through 'I' starting from White's right and the ranks are labelled '1' through '10' starting from Black's side.

Was the game something Fischer actually played? If not, what is it doing in a museum bearing his name?

23 April 2019

Fischer Center, Selfoss, Iceland

The Flickr short list that resulted in a recent post, Getting Lost, had a strong second candidate. I couldn't decide which photo to use, so I created a composite image, shown below.


Upper left corner: Bobby Fischer center in Selfoss © Flickr user John Seb Barber under Creative Commons.

To see all of the photos, follow the link in the caption, then use left/right navigation. I've already mentioned the Fischer center in a post on my chess960 blog, More on the Fischer Random Cup (March 2018):-

Fischer Memorial Tour I, 'a trip to the Fischer Center in Selfoss and Fischer’s Grave nearby', included a map of Selfoss

The post included a copy of the map and a link to the center's web presence. And, yes, the 11th World Champion is buried at Selfoss. I once featured another Flickr photo in Fischer's Final Resting Place (April 2015).

22 April 2019

TCEC S15 DivP Nears Finish; CCC8 Half-Way

Let's summarize last week's post, TCEC S15 DivP Underway; Leela Wins CCC7 Final, about the status of two important, ongoing engine-vs-engine competitions:-

TCEC: Stockfish is currently leading the premier division, followed by Leela (aka LCZero, Lc0), KomodoMCTS (Monte Carlo version), and Houdini. • CCC: Leela was the surprise winner of CCC7, finishing ahead of Stockfish by a convincing margin. CCC8, nicknamed 'Deep Dive' by the organizers, is already underway.

The engines have continued slugging it out for the past week, a long time in engine play, so let's check on their current ststus.

TCEC: The season 15 premier division is in the final round of play with Stockfish holding first place, Leela second, and the other engines trailing by a considerable margin. Since the rules specify, 'The top 2 engines promote to the Superfinal', we can anticipate the same two finalists as in season 14. I reported on that match in Stockfish Wins TCEC S14; CCC6 S2 Underway (February 2019):-

The final score [was] +10-9=81 (50.5-49.5) in Stockfish's favor. That's as narrow a match win as exists in chess, much to the delight of Stockfish fans and the chagrin of Leela fans.

Will Leela fans get their revenge in S15? If past schedules are an indication of future performance, we might see TCEC Cup 3 before the Superfinal (aka final) starts. Leela won TCEC Cup 2.

As an aside, what happened to Chessdom.com? The site hasn't issued a report on TCEC since 12 March and hasn't issued a report on any other news since end-January. The subdomain tcec.chessdom.com ('TCEC - Live Chess Broadcast') is alive and ccrl.chessdom.com shows normal activity, but the rest is dead as a doornail.

CCC: Chess.com issued a report on CCC7, Lc0 Wins Computer Chess Championship, Makes History:-

The machine-learning chess engine Lc0 won the Chess.com Computer Chess Championship last weekend, making history as the first neural-network project to take the title. Lc0, which taught itself how to play chess, is now at the game's pinnacle as the champion computer engine.

The report also introduced the next competition:-

Can Lc0 defend its title in a longer time control? CCC 8: Deep Dive is live now, featuring 24 of the world's top chess engines playing at a rapid time control of 15 minutes plus a five-second increment per move.

CCC8 uses an escalation format, meaning that the engines enter the competition in reverse order of strength -- last ranked starts first, first ranked last -- and play full mini-matches against each of the engines that have already started play. As of this writing, a little more than half of the engines have started play, and the final result is anyone's guess. The official schedule projects 1104 games total.

[For further information from the various stakeholders in the engine-to-engine events, see the tab 'TCEC/CCC Links' at the top of this page.]

21 April 2019

Getting Lost

The story starts in the lower right corner. Or maybe it finishes there, since it's checkmate. Or maybe it doesn't have a beginning and an end.


Schachmatt am Schütze-Denkmal © Flickr user Erik Berndt under Creative Commons.

The artist's 'About' page says,

All pictures are hand-drawn, pencil only; but of course I like all kinds of "visual communication", given that they show wit and imagination.

It also says he lives in Frankfurt/Main, Germany. He translates the title as 'Checkmate at the Archer Monument.'

Honoured are the Fabulous Zambranos, the city's most famous son and daughter. The description for the drawing says, Also shown is the newly constructed cableway connecting the shanty towns on the surrounding hills with the rest of the city, ...and the higher technical school for fashion and clothing design "Karl Lagerfeld", at the bottom left. The building also houses 150.000 volumes of his enormous library, now made accessible to the public. • Pencil, 30 x 40 cm.

That must be the Schütze-Denkmal center-bottom, but after that I get lost. I dislike getting lost more than I dislike losing.

19 April 2019

Chess Sources for Google Books

Scans of early chess periodicals in Google Books (last discussed on this blog in Other 'Schachzeitungen') usually carry clues to the originating physical library. Many files trace their origins to the Royal Library (Koninklijke Bibliotheek; KB) in The Hague, more specifically the Chess and draughts collection (kb.nl):-

Collection history: The chess collection is based on the collections of Antonius van der Linde, Meindert Niemeijer and G.L. Gortmans. • Size: The chess and draughts collection consists of ca. 30.000 titles.

Many of the German language files are from the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Muenchen, better known to English speakers as Bavarian State Library (wikipedia.org):-

The Bavarian State Library (German: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, abbreviated BSB, called Bibliotheca Regia Monacensis before 1919) in Munich is the central "Landesbibliothek", i.e. the state library of the Free State of Bavaria and one of Europe's most important universal libraries.

A few bookplates from other municipal or university libraries also appear frequently. Two of the most frequent are shown below.

The bookplate on the left is related to the G.A. Pfeiffer chess collection (nypl.org):-

Gustavus Adolphus Pfeiffer (1872-1953) was an American businessman and philanthropist. He was originally from Cedar Falls, Iowa where he was born and educated. His occupational field was pharmaceuticals. Pfeiffer was at the same time a serious collector of chessmen and chess related material. He donated his entire collection of chessmen to the Metropolitan of Art in New York (1952/53). He also donated over a hundred chess books to the N. Y. Public Library which now make up the Frank J. Marshall Collection of Chess books. Among his donations to the N.Y.P.L. were 7 scrap books which contained manuscript material on chess and on famous chessmasters.

Frank J. Marshall's book 'Marshall's Best Games of Chess' was dedicated to Pfeiffer as 'A True and Valued Friend', and there are numerous other tributes to Pfeiffer's support of the Marshall Chess Club in New York. As for the collection of chess sets, Carving Out a Collection (metmuseum.org) says,

The Metropolitan [Museum of Art] owes its reputation as a world-class repository of chess sets to the beneficence of Gustavus Adolphus Pfeiffer.

The bookplate on the right connects Silas W. Howland to the Harvard College library. A page on Chessgames.com, The chess games of Silas W Howland gives his obituary (plus one game, a simul win over Capablanca). Another page on the same site, The chess games of Charles A Gilberg, attributes the Howland / Harvard collection to Gilberg. For more about the subject, see Chess Libraries in America (jstor.org) by Albrecht Buschke, Princeton University Library Chronicle, 1941.

18 April 2019

Chess on the USA - Mexico Border

From the 15 April 1911 issue of Judge Magazine.


"Your Move"
Signed 'Grant E. Hamilton'

The cartoon shows Uncle Sam playing with an orderly formation of troops against a man labelled 'Mexico' playing with a rabble. Behind Uncle Sam are smokestacks and oil rigs. Behind Mexico is a cactus.

Judge Magazine (wikipedia.org):-

Judge was a weekly satirical magazine published in the United States from 1881 to 1947. It was launched by artists who had seceded from its rival Puck. The founders included cartoonist James Albert Wales, dime novels publisher Frank Tousey and author George H. Jessop.

Mexican Revolution (wikipedia.org):-

The Mexican Revolution, also known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government.

Fast forward 100 years: the tension on the USA - Mexico border remains palpable.

16 April 2019

Breaking the 2900 Barrier

Nearly five months ago, in Breaking the 2800 Barrier (December 2018), I predicted,

I'll be back in another 100 posts to write 'Breaking the 2900 Barrier'. It promises to be a short post.

Post no.2900 was Other 'Schachzeitungen', so here I am, as promised. It turns out that it's not going to be such a short post after all.

According to Comparison of top chess players throughout history (wikipedia.org), Magnus Carlsen achieved the highest chess rating of all time, when he reached 2882 in May 2014. He's currently rated at 2845, still world no.1 but a long way from the elusive 2900. Some day he or another super-talented player might reach 2900, although it's anybody's guess when that will happen, if ever.

For 2900 ratings, we have to turn to the world of chess engines. Here is a relevant chart signed Luke Muehlhauser and dated 2011.


Historical chess engines' estimated ELO ratings (PDF)

I've marked the 2900 crossover point with a red star. The engine under the star is Shredder 8.0 and the year was 2003 or thereabouts. As for 'Breaking the 3000 Barrier', the same chart points to Rybka 1.2 a few years later. Looks like I won't have to write the 3000 post at all.

15 April 2019

TCEC S15 DivP Underway; Leela Wins CCC7 Final

Before looking at the current status of the world's top two engine competitions, let's summarize last week's report. From TCEC S15 Div1 Finishes; CCC7 Final Starts:-

TCEC: KomodoMCTS and AllieStein finished 1st and 2nd in division 1 to qualify into the premier division with six other engines. • CCC: The four first placed engines are currently in a final where Leela leads by a comfortable margin, AntiFish trails by a considerable margin, and the two other engines [Stockfish & Leelenstein] are fighting for 2nd/3rd places.

TCEC: Last week I wrote, 'I'm slowly realizing that the TCEC preliminary divisions take about a week to play from start to finish.' The premier division has been underway since then and is currently less than half finished. The event's info page says,

Division Premier consists of the 6 engines that qualified from previous Season plus the top 2 engines from Division 1. It is a 3x double round robin (168 games). The top 2 engines promote to the Superfinal and the bottom 2 engines are relegated to Division 1.'

The preceding divisions were all '2x double RR (112 games)'. Stockfish is currently leading the premier division, followed by Leela (aka LCZero, Lc0), KomodoMCTS (Monte Carlo version), and Houdini.

CCC: Leela was the surprise winner of CCC7, finishing ahead of Stockfish by a convincing margin. As for last week's comment, 'Stockfish & Leelenstein are fighting for 2nd/3rd places', Stockfish soon surged ahead of its AI/NN rival and the four engines maintained their relative positions until the end.

The following chart shows the final score as published by the CCC organizers. At the bottom I've added my own W-L-D analysis. Leela beat Stockfish in their individual 100-game match and finished with a better percentage against the other two engines.


(Image can be expanded by 50%)

Stockfish won all previous CCC events. Two facts make CCC7 noteworthy:-

1) Stockfish was the only non-AI/NN engine to qualify for the final.
2) It was bested in the final by its main AI/NN competitor.

CCC7 marked the symbolic end of the dominance of the traditional, handcrafted, alpha-beta engines. The passing of the baton to a new generation needs to be confirmed by a TCEC victory for an AI/NN engine, but that is a question of 'when', not 'if'.

CCC8, nicknamed 'Deep Dive' by the organizers, is already underway. The rules say,

Format: 4xRR each engine plays the others 2x as white and 2x as black. • No opening book. • Top 4 engines advance to final, only two can be from a single, or shared, code-base. • Time control: 15m + 5s

Note the phrase 'only two [engines] can be from a single, or shared, code-base'. Of the four engines in the CCC7 final, two started life as clones of Leela. While this in no way detracts from the significance of Leela's win, it does call into question the diversity of the final. The TCEC rules governing AI/NN diversity are as follows:-

For the purpose of TCEC a participant is considered a neural network (NN) engine if it generally requires the use of GPU and consists of at least the following 3 parts:
   1. The code for training the neural network
   2. The neural network (and weights file) itself
   3. The engine that executes this network
It is the parts 2 and 3 that will actually be a playing combination at TCEC. Part 1 is used in preparation. • Uniqueness: For an NN engine to be unique in the TCEC context, at least two of the three defining parts mentioned above have to be unique. • Eligibility for participation: A NN engine is eligible for participation in TCEC if it is considered unique by the Uniqueness definition above.

It has only been a year since the AI/NN engines burst into engine-to-engine competitions. The organizers of these events are still grappling with the complications introduced by their appearance. A year from now what will be the rules governing their participation?

[For further information from the various stakeholders in the engine-to-engine events, see the tab 'TCEC/CCC Links' at the top of this page.]

14 April 2019

Chess for Cheapskates

I once wrote an About.com piece, Chess for Free, subtitled,

You don't have to be a cheapskate to enjoy chess, but you don't have to be a millionaire either.

This video proves the point.


DIY How to Make Chess in 2 Minutes - School Life Hacks (3:00) • 'Published on Apr 14, 2019'

The description simply repeated the title of the video and added,

Using simple school tools.

One comment said, '2 minutes... hmmm'. It's probably more like 20 minutes, plus the time to gather or buy the materials, but it's still an impressive concept.

12 April 2019

Other 'Schachzeitungen'

In a recent post, Berliner 'Schachzeitung' (March 2019), I wrote,

While I was collecting the 26 volumes of the Berliner Schachgesellschaft's 'Schachzeitung', I noted other periodicals having 'Schachzeitung' in their title. I'll cover these in another post.

I created the following chart to keep track of the different publications. It shows which periodicals were published in which years.

The codes in the first line identfy three different periodicals:-

• SZ = Schachzeitung

• DSZ = Deutsche Schachzeitung. The code 'V00' covers a period that overlaps with SZ. The '?' for 1879 means that I was unable to locate a copy in Google Books. Since I was getting further away from the initial scope of the search, I stopped here without spending much time on it.

• NBS = Neue Berliner Schachzeitung

The numbers in the second line are references to Di Felice's 'Chess Periodicals, 1836-2008'. The references are expanded below.

I gave information from Di Felice for SZ in the 'Berliner Schachzeitung' post. Here is the corresponding info for the others:-

789. Deutsche Schachzeitung (1846–1848) Vol.1, no.1 (1846)–Vol.3, no.3 (1848). Bi-monthly. Editor Herrmann Hirschbach. Publisher G. Brauns. Leipzig. Germany. Diagrs., tables, 23 cm. Magazine. General. German. Note No longer published.

790. Deutsche Schachzeitung : Organ für das Gesamte Schachleben (1872–1988) Vol.27, no.1 (Jan 1872)–Vol.137, no.12 (Dec 1988). Monthly. Editors Johannes Minckwitz and Adolf Anderssen (1872–76), Constantin Schwede and Adolf Anderssen (12/1876–78), Johannes Minckwitz (01/1879–12/1886), [...]. Publisher Veit & Co, later W. De Gruyter & Co. Leipzig, later Berlin. Germany. Illus., ports., 24 cm. Magazine. General. German. Note Continues Schachzeitung: In Monatl, with the same numbering.

1601. Neue Berliner Schachzeitung (1864–1871) Vol.1, no.1 (Jan 1864)–Vol.8 (Nov/Dec 1871). Monthly. Editors Adolf Anderssen and G.R. Neumann (Vol.1-4), Adolf Anderssen and Johannes Hermann Zukertort (Vol.5-8). Publisher J. Springer. Berlin. Germany. Illus., 23 cm. Magazine. General. German. Note No longer published.

In addition to these offshoots of 'Berliner Schachzeitung', I found three other publications from the same period with 'Schachzeitung' in their titles. The info from Di Felice is as follows:-

2792. Wiener Schach-Zeitung (1855) Vol.1, no.1 (Jan 1855)–no.9 (Sept 1855). Monthly. Editor Ernest Falkbeer. Publisher A.A. Wenedikt (no.1-6), M. Auer (no.7-9). Wien. Austria. Illus.22 cm. Magazine. General. German. Note No longer published.

2358. Schweizerische Schachzeitung (1857–1860) Vol.1, no.1 (1857)–Vol.2, no.21 (1858); New Series Vol.3, no.1 (Sept 5, 1859)–Vol.3 (1860). Frequency and Publisher unknown. Editor Friedrich Capräz. Chur. Switzerland. Magazine. General. German. Note No longer published.

For the third publication, Österreichische Schachzeitung, I found no entry in Di Felice. There are four volumes on Google Books, 1872-1875.

11 April 2019

The Turk

Who hasn't seen a picture of 'The Turk', that 19th century chess playing machine that had a strong chess player hidden inside it to take on all comers? I was reminded of this while working on the recent post Chess Player’s Chronicle : Frequency. The first annual volume was prefaced by a full page illustration of the Turk and by a 16-page article on the subject.

I wondered whether the illustration and the article had found their way into the literature. First, here's an overview of Turk images using the technique last seen in Chess Playing Celebrities (March 2019).


Google image search on 'chess turk'
[Call the rows 'A' to 'C' (from top to bottom) and number the images in each row '1' to '7' (from left to right).]

A colorized version of the illustration from 'Chess Player’s Chronicle' (CPC), with similar shading, is in B3. It leads to How a Phony 18th Century Chess Robot Fooled the World (history.com). A black & white version, with a different background, is in A5. It leads to The Turk (wikipedia.org). The Wikipedia caption says,

A copper engraving of the Turk, showing the open cabinets and working parts. A ruler at bottom right provides scale. Kempelen was a skilled engraver and may have produced this image himself.

The CPC version doesn't include the ruler. The anonymous CPC article, 'The Automaton Chess Player', started,

The art of constructing figures to imitate, by means of mechanism, the actions of living beings, appears to have been carried to great perfection by the ancients. In Herodotus we find allusions to what are considered to have been Automata amongst the Egyptians; and have positive testimony that, from the celebrated statue of Memnon, and even from its pedestal, after this wonder of Ancient Egypt was overthrown, beautiful sounds were emitted at the rising and the setting of the sun. Amongst the Greeks and Romans, artificial puppets, called Neurospasti, which could run round a table, moving their heads, eyes and hands, were common.

When I submitted the first clause of the paragraph to Google search, it returned only a handful of references to various editions of the first CPC volume. Has the article not been reproduced elsewhere? This is a pity, because it is well written by someone who knew the subject. The same is true of many of the literary articles in the first volumes of the CPC.

09 April 2019

Chess Comics No.8 : Mystery Comic

While I was preparing the recent post on JLA Chess Comics I searched my archive of chess images on the keyword 'comic'. The search returned more than 500 images, many of them having nothing to do with comics except as an unimportant word in the description.

I spent an enjoyable hour researching the more unusual images, but ran into a brick wall with the image shown below. It's from a 2004 eBay auction for which I have nothing more than the description 'Chess #1 Comics Comic VF+ NM'.


'Chess #1 Comics'

The keyword 'chess comics' isn't very useful for locating a specific comic. I turned to the Google service I described in last year's post Search Your Own Images (June 2018), and fed it a copy of the image. It told me,

No other sizes of this image found. Possible related search: picture frame

Fair enough. The black border looks something like a picture frame. I cropped it out and fed the image to the service a second time. This time it said,

No other sizes of this image found. Possible related search: illustration

Now I was facing the brick wall. What to do? Document the problem in a blog post. What to title the post? Let's continue the series last seen in Chess Comics No.7: Punch Animated GIF (May 2014). Maybe something will turn up.

08 April 2019

TCEC S15 Div1 Finishes; CCC7 Final Starts

Continuing with weekly coverage of two ongoing engine-vs-engine tournaments, a week ago the status was: TCEC S15 Div2 Finishes; CCC7 Nears Final. I can summarize that post with:-

TCEC: S15 [season 15] division 1 is currently underway; the AI/NN engine AllieStein was one of two qualifying from division 2. • CCC: Komodo has just entered the tournament, the first of the four top seeds to do so. [...] It's possible we'll see two AI/NN engines in the [four-player] final.

Let's check the status after another week has passed.

TCEC: I'm slowly realizing that the TCEC preliminary divisions take about a week to play from start to finish. KomodoMCTS and AllieStein finished 1st and 2nd in division 1 to qualify into the premier division with six other engines. The premier division, including the two S14 finalists, Stockfish and Leela (LC0), has just started. The engines finishing in the first two places will qualify for the S15 final (aka superfinal or 'sufi').

CCC: The preliminary event 'Blitz Bonanza' finished with a surprise result. Although Stockfish finished first, it was ahead of three AI/NN engines -- Leelenstein, Leela, and AntiFish -- in that order. Former elite-class engines Houdini and Komodo only finished behind those four. The following crosstable shows how the top engines fared against each other. There were 24 engines in the event.

The four first placed engines are currently in a final where Leela leads by a comfortable margin, AntiFish trails by a considerable margin, and the two other engines are fighting for 2nd/3rd places. Will this trend continue until the end?

[For further information from the various stakeholders in the engine-to-engine events, see the tab 'TCEC/CCC Links' at the top of this page.]

07 April 2019

JLA Chess Comics

The last time we saw a comic book on Top eBay Chess Items by Price (March 2010) was Batman Plays Chess with the Joker (December 2011). According to my post, that comic 'received one bid and sold for US $750'.

The item pictured below was titled 'Justice League of America #1 CGC VG+ 4.5; OW-W; classic chess cover!'. It sold for around US $1300, 'Best offer accepted'.

The description simply repeated the title, so we have to look elsewhere for further information. My 'Batman/Joker' post explained the meaning of the cryptic 'CGC VG+ 4.5', which is a system for grading comics. The balloon on the comic cover says,

I've got this game rigged so that everytime Flash makes a move, a member of the Justice League disappears from the face of the earth!

More about the comic can be found at:-

Two subsequent Justice League covers featured chess (also from dc.fandom.com):-

The cover for no.61 is similar to no.1, and the page informs, 'The cover art is an homage to the cover of Justice League of America #1 (1960).' Why is no.178 dated 1980 but no.61 is dated 1992? Because the first is from a volume titled 'Justice League of America'; the second volume is titled 'Justice League America'.

05 April 2019

Chess Player’s Chronicle : Frequency

In last week's post, Chess Player’s Chronicle (CPC), I found an apparent discrepancy between Di Felice's book 'Chess Periodicals' and the copies of CPC on Google Books:-

Di Felice's description says, 'Monthly', but this seems not to describe the real frequency. The first three volumes (S01V01-V03) are composed of a series of 16-page publications, numbering around 26 per volume.

After finishing that post I continued to check the frequency of publication for subsequent volumes. The following chart shows what I found.

The left column, the year of the volume, is followed by the series/volume, the number of issues in the volume, and the number of pages per issue. That last value, number of pages, can vary for individual issues in a volume, but holds for most of them.

Di Felice's description of the frequency, 'Monthly', is true for most volumes. It differs for the three volumes that I checked in the previous post; for S01V08 (1847), where the issues appeared weekly; for S02V04 (1856), the last volume of the second series; and for S03V04 (1862), the last volume of the third series.

For the first three and the last of those irregular volumes -- S01V01, S01V02, S01V03, & S03V04 -- I haven't been able to pin the issues to specific time periods, because their content offers too few dates. If I discover anything, I'll add a note to this post.

I appreciate that most people reading this post are not interested in any of the above. The information might, however, help others who are interested in exploring the early issues of the CPC.

04 April 2019

Blogger Profile

In the antepenultimate act of the Google+ saga, Goodbye Google+, Hello Twitter (October 2018), I learned that the failed social network was closing and moved any relevant dependence elsewhere. In the penultimate act, Google+ Sunsets (February 2019), I learned how the service was going to close and established one further dependency:-

I also received a notice from Blogger.com -- 'In March 2019, Blogger will revert to only having Blogger profiles. Users that have selected a G+ profile in the past will appear as unknown authors until they next login to Blogger and supply a new display name and avatar.' -- As far as I can tell, that's the only part of the shutdown that I need to watch.

For the last act I need to re-examine the Blogger profile. My blogs switched to using the profile earlier this week and after I entered some missing data it looked as shown in the following image.

The left box shows the portion of the profile that is displayed on each page for my various blogs. The right box shows the profile itself. That's all fairly routine, except for the 'Gender' tag. I didn't like the way it blared 'MALE' in uppercase, so I deleted it. Most people know that 'Mark' must be a guy.

There were a few other data fields that needed attention. I located my profile photo in the archive that Google+ prepared for me before closing down. After adding it to Blogger, I also added it to my Twitter account, Mark Weeks (@bemweeks), which is my index acrosss all of my chess blogs. While I was adding the profile photo to Twitter, I also added a header photo, the same lightning photo I used on Google+.

The Blogger profile offered a few other data fields that were unusual -- 'Show sites I follow', 'Wishlist URL', 'Random question' -- but they either didn't work as I expected (maybe they are obsolete) or weren't particularly useful. I'll keep them in mind for some other time.

02 April 2019

April 1969 'On the Cover'

In last month's March 1969 'On the Cover', we saw two top Soviet players. This month we see two top American players.


Left: 'Anthony Saidy Acquires International Master Title at Venice' (Photo: Art Zeller; 'Story next month')
Right: 'Winner at Malaga'

Chess Life; 'Story next month' was in fact 'story in two months', so we skip ahead two months then go back 50 years. From the June 1969 CL, 'We Open in Venice' by Anthony Saidy:-

Vlastimil Hort, 25-year-old Czech International Grandmaster, romped undefeated to an easy victory in the 3rd annual International Venice Tournament, March 5-23. The "baby" of the event took the sole lead with four straight wins, had 7 points after 8 rounds and coasted to a final tally of 11 1/2 - 3 1/2.

U.S. stars Pal Benko and Anthony Saidy were bunched in a mammoth tie for second-seventh places with Grandmaster M. Taimanov (USSR), "ex"-Grandmaster K. Robatsch (Austria), IGM L. Lengyel (Hungary) and IM S. Tatai (Italy), two points behind the winner. The result gave Saidy the FIDE title of International Master. Trailing were Yugoslav IGMs M. Matulovic and B. Ivkov and W. German IGM W. Unzicker.

Chess Review

In a recent international tournament, at Malaga, Spain, Pal Benko won first place, or at least shared it with Borislav Ivkov, 11 - 3. Levente Lengyel, Garcia A. Medina and Arturo Pomar were next with 9 1/2 - 4 1/2. And Junior World Champion Julio Kaplan of Puerto Rico was sixth, 8 1/2 - 5 1/2.

Both photos had been used for previous covers. We saw the same photo of Saidy, flipped on the vertical axis, in the January 1968 'On the Cover' (January 2018). When was the last time you saw a chess board with 'black on right' on the cover of a major chess magazine?.

The Benko photo was seen in the April 1967 'On the Cover' (April 2017). The last time he appeared on either cover was the May 1968 'On the Cover' (May 2018).

Back to the Chess Life quote, what did the phrase '"ex"-Grandmaster K. Robatsch' mean? Later in the same article, we find:-

[Benko] was playing in his fifth international event in as many months and was understandably not in his usual fighting mood, taking several peaceful draws. What's more, he faced another tournament in Monte Carlo only a week later. (He was pressed into the Venice event at a late hour, as was Matulovic, in an effort to qualify it as a FIDE "1A" tournament. The effort just failed, for lack of another IGM, because Robatsch's title had lapsed.)

I always thought FIDE titles were for life.

01 April 2019

TCEC S15 Div2 Finishes; CCC7 Nears Final

A week has passed since my last report on the two engine competitions that keep going and going 24/7. I'll summarize last week's report, TCEC S15 Div3 Finishes; CCC7 Starts, with a couple of sentences on each competition:-

TCEC: This week's situation is an echo of last week's: S15 division 2 is currently underway. The AI/NN engine AllieStein was one of two qualifying from division 3. • CCC6/7: Chess.com issued a report on CCC6, which also outlined the plan for CCC7. The event has four AI/NN engines, four places in the CCC7 final stage.

What's happened since then?

TCEC: For the third straight week, I can issue a nearly identical report; only the division numbers have changed: S15 division 1 is currently underway; the AI/NN engine AllieStein was one of two qualifying from division 2. It is also one of the leaders in division 1, although the top engines are bunched closely together.

The TCEC archive includes an S15 event called 'Side Bonus DivP dev vs Div4 dev', which finished sometime last week. I couldn't find any writeup about the event explaining its name, which probably means that development versions of top-ranked engines played low-ranked engines. The crosstable indicates that the event was largely unstructured.

CCC: CCC7 is an escalation event where the strongest engines start playing after the lower-seeded engines have all played each other. This makes it difficult to predict the eventual winner(s). Komodo has just entered the tournament, the first of the four top seeds to do so. Leelenstein was leading at the time, followed by Antifish. Both are AI/NN engines. The top four engines -- Houdini, Komodo, and Stockfish plus AI/NN engine Leela (LC0) -- will have to pass this barrier to qualify into the four-engine final. It's possible we'll see two AI/NN engines in the final.

[For further information from the various stakeholders in the engine-to-engine events, see the tab 'TCEC/CCC Links' at the top of this page.]

31 March 2019

Drawing the Gender Line

A fifth weekend this month gives me the opportunity for an immediate followup of last weekend's post Chess and Gender Lines. I ended that post saying,

This topic is one of the most awkward that chess has to offer and I need to gird my loins before wading further into it.

This isn't the first time I've addressed the topic. As far as I can remember, the first time was an About.com article, Elsewhere on the Web : Women in Chess (March 2005), still available on Archive.org. There I discussed 'Birth of the Chess Queen' by Marilyn Yalom, followed by Jennifer Shahade, Susan Polgar, and the 'ongoing chess controversy : Why have women players not been able to achieve the same results as men?'.

The subject isn't a one-way street. Criticism across gender lines cuts in both directions. A few years ago I wrote a post on this blog, Chess Players Aren't 'A Barrel of Laughs' (August 2017), where some 'Dear Abby' advice ended with:-

A chess game resembles a war in that it consists of attack and defense, whose object is making the "King" surrender. On second thought, it could be a good training ground for marriage.

That advice was probably tongue-in-cheek, but it's still insulting to men. The heart of the 'Gender Lines' post was a video titled, 'Is Chess Sexist?'. One commenter said,

Is chess sexist? Yes, the King is portrayed as a weak submissive male, while the Queen's domain and power are unlimited. The poor King may only move one spot any direction, the Queen's movements are unbounded.

Although that idea exaggerates the rules, it also contains a large dose of truth. For more about the gender aspect, I turned to the January post in my 'Sociology of Chess' series. There I introduced the book 'Players and Pawns' by Gary Alan Fine. On page 164, in a section titled 'The Girl and the Game', the author writes,

Perhaps the first question that an outside observer asks when visiting a chess tournament is, where are the girls? Where are the women? In so many areas of American life that were once dominated by men, women are edging toward parity: medicine, law, fiction, even politics. Wherever elites gather, there are women. Extreme gender disparity is rare.

I do not explain why women are underrepresented, but I will discuss why women are said to be underrepresented. The evidence of that underrepresentation is clear. No woman has won the world championship, no major tournament has a female champion, and only about 1 percent of all of the world's grandmasters are women.

After more facts and statistics, the author continues,

To understand the role of women in chess, it is worth noting that many of the top players -- Bobby Fischer and Garry Kasparov among them -- have a low opinion of female players. Not only are women not good at chess, but by nature they will never be good, some believe. Of course, one could also dig up antique quotations about female doctors or novelists. This view stands in contrast with research that indicates biology plays a small role in ability. While women and men might have different cognitive skills, with male skills benefitting chess ability, the more sociological view is that opportunity structures matter more. Analyses of life histories of players, as well as surveys, support the opportunity-structure theory. Boys enter chess in greater numbers, and those who are successful continue. Boy culture dominates.

After some anecdotal evidence comes a series of key observations.

One of the main passages is the father-child relationship, often the father-son relationship. If fathers are less inclined to teach their daughters, the parental bond is lost. In schools girls face other obstacles. An ethnographic study of a mixed-gender chess club in elementary school found that girls dropped out at a much higher rate than by because of hostility, criticism, and distaste for the aggression of the games. In second-grade talk, boys are "really mean" or, later, they are "so annoying". Despite support from the club organizer, these girls felt that the boys didn't want them there. Male chess players have the dual reputations of being nerds and boors. Perhaps chess, unlike medicine, is too trivial to be worth the bother. As anthropologist Margaret Mead remarked, "Women could be just as good at chess, but why would they want to be?"

That Margaret Mead quote, which is again insulting to male chess players, is followed by a section titled 'Nerds and Boors'. It starts,

To understand sexism I begin at the pinnacle. Bobby Fischer, who could read the board, even if he was less proficient at reading the world, commented in 1962, "They're all weak, all women. They're stupid compared to men. They shouldn't play chess, you know."

The Fischer quote is well known. Other grandmasters, Kasparov among them, have said similar, although not in language as direct as Fischer. The latest in the series of demeaning sentiments by grandmasters came from former World Championship challenger Nigel Short, and we can be sure that there will be future statements from other players. If men want women to enjoy chess and to respect chess players, why are the men so unchivalrous? Maybe they're afraid of the competition.

29 March 2019

Chess Player’s Chronicle

Continuing with investigations into early chess periodicals available via Google Books, in last week's post, Le Palamede, I wrote,

After 'Berliner Schachzeitung', my second effort concentrated on 'Palamède'.

My third effort concentrated on 'The Chess Player’s Chronicle'. Once again, I'll use Di Felice's 'Chess Periodicals, 1836-2008' as a starting point.

617. Chess Player’s Chronicle (The) [England] (1841–1862) Vol.1 (1841)–Vol.13 (1852); Second Series Vol.1 (1853)–Vol.4 (1856); Third Series Vol.1 (1859)–Vol.4, no.43 (July 1862). Monthly. Editors Howard Staunton (1841–54); R.B. Brien (1854–56). Publisher R. Hastings (1841–52, 1853–56), J.H. Starie (1859–62). London. England. Illus., 22 cm. Magazine. General. English. Note Vol.1 (first series) has title British Miscellany and Chess Player’s Chronicle (The). Editor of third series not given in the text. Superseded by Chess Player’s Magazine (The).

It's not immediately clear what differentiates the three series, but here is the same information in tabular form:-

  • 1st series: Vol.1 (1841) – Vol.13 (1852);
  • 2nd series: Vol.1 (1853) – Vol.4 (1856);
  • 3rd series: Vol.1 (1859) – Vol.4, no.43 (July 1862).

The first series covers 12 years, but includes 13 volumes. It appears there were two volumes issued in the first year. The following image shows the title pages for the initial volumes of the first and second series.


Left: S01V01, 1841; Right: S02V01, 1853

After locating the 21 volumes (13 + 4 + 4) on Google Books, my next task was to classify the content. Di Felice's description says, 'Monthly', but this seems not to describe the real frequency. The first three volumes (S01V01-V03) are composed of a series of 16-page publications, numbering around 26 per volume. Each publication starts with a composed problem, followed by game scores and text articles. As with all of the early periodicals I've looked at, dates are given infrequently, meaning that other clues are necessary to ascertain the time of publication. Di Felice's book mentions a few other incarnations of Chess Player’s Chronicle.

  • 619 The Chess Player’s Magazine (1863–1867)
  • 621 The Chess Player’s Quarterly Chronicle (1868–1871)
  • 618 The Chess Player’s Chronicle [England] (1872–1900)

I'll look at those another time.

28 March 2019

March Yahoos -- A Viral Story

The drought is over. In last month's post, February Amazon Yahoos, I wrote,

For the third consecutive month, my Yahoo news feed served no chess news. [...] Maybe we'll see some mainstream coverage of chess in March, but I'm not optimistic.

I should have been more optimistic. A great story, which was picked up by most major news services, appeared twice in the same Yahoo news feed. The first appearance was a featured story at the top of the feed, captioned, 'Homeless refugee chess champion goes viral'.

2019-03-18: Homeless 8-year-old refugee wins New York State chess championship, inspiring viral fundraiser (yahoo.com). The story started,

Tanitoluwa Adewumi just said checkmate. Despite learning the game a little over a year ago, the 8-year-old boy -- homeless refugee from Nigeria -- was crowned the New York State Primary Chess Champion in the kindergarten-to-third-grade bracket of the 52nd New York State Scholastic Championships. The elementary school student, better known as "Tani," went undefeated at the championships, where he outsmarted opponents from top private schools with pricey chess tutors.

The story attracted more than 1500 comments, many of them about immigration policy in the U.S. Most of the comments were supportive of the boy's achievement, but some were downright mean.

2019-03-19

As shown in the screenshot above, the second story appeared above other, similar stories, The photo is from Tani's GoFundMe page.

2019-03-18: Homeless 8-year-old boy wins New York State chess championship (yahoo.com; AOL.com) 'The 8-year-old refugee, whose family fled northern Nigeria in 2017 in fears of Boko Haram's attacks on Christians like themselves, first learned how to play chess at Manhattan's P.S. 116.'

Tani plans to play in the USA's national elementary championship in May. His participation might mean that the tournament will attract far more than the usual media attention.